Understand and Treat Hypertension Before Too Late
Although cases of hypertension in the community is very high, many people do not realize he was this common killer diseases. Currently, an estimated 76% of all cases of hypertension in people who have not been diagnosed. This means that sufferers do not know that he was suffering from hypertension. Meanwhile, approximately 31.7% of hypertensive patients, only 0.4% of cases were adherent take medication regularly.
This was revealed in the annual scientific meeting of hypertension held Hypertension Association of Indonesia (Perhi) or The Indonesian Society of Hypertension (InasSH), in Jakarta, recently. The meeting was attended by more than 1,500 participants, consisting of general practitioners and specialists, which discussed issues surrounding hypertension, particularly on ways to control it. A number of international experts in the Asia Pacific region as a speaker.
Professor of Medicine in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia (Faculty of medicine), Prof Jose Roesma said many residents are not aware of hypertension awareness due to low health check. Moreover, this disease does not show symptoms early, so it is ignored.
Compared to developed countries, although cases of hypertension is also high, the awareness of the health check and control of the disease is high. Of the 100 cases of hypertension, for example, according to Jose, nearly 40% of them did well control. While in Indonesia is still below 10%.
Ironically, medication non-compliance is generally determine the impact of hypertension, such as heart attacks. As a result, the death rate from hypertension in developed countries was far lower than developed countries with minimal conscious control.
“There are people with hypertension take medication only when symptoms appear or needs. Fact, hypertension is cause damage to other organs, such as chronic renal too, sufferers often do not obey any medicines,” he said.
Jose added that the factors that lead to non-compliance with hypertension medication, partly because of the many drugs that must be taken. In addition to blood pressure, other factors that cause local damage are diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity, and more. In addition to a lifetime of taking medication to control hypertension, patients also need to take medication to cure the local damage.
“In addition to the type, number of drugs taken was increased. Growing number taking the drug, the possibility of medication non-compliance is greater.’s Not simple. So, people should really know the impact of hypertension and noncompliance taking medication, and what to do . medicine for hypertension should be given according to need, the type of drug, and the time, “said Jose.
Can be controlled.
Specialist Internal Medicine, Kidney and Hypertension of the Faculty of Medicine, Prof. Suhardjono said, nearly 90% of hypertension due to genetic factors, or a family history of hypertension. However, this can be controlled by avoiding risk factors or triggers of hypertension.
In addition, the high prevalence of hypertension is closely related to lifestyle, stress levels, diet, especially the consumption of too much salt. Salt intake Indonesian society is still relatively high at 15 grams per day, exceeding the recommended limits, which is 6 grams, or about 1 teaspoon per day.
In this case, Suhardjono said, there is no necessity of the government to include the amount of salt in packaged foods that should be consumed by the public. In addition, the Indonesian cigarette consumption is also quite high, which is based on the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) 2007 showed 23.7% of people aged 10 years and over spent an average of 12 cigarettes per day. While only 48.2% of population physical activity, and 93.6% less of fruits and vegetables. The third behavior is a risk factor for hypertension.
“Hypertension is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Hypertension is associated with various health problems, such as cognitive impairment, heart disease, and stroke. Disease is like the tip of the iceberg, because most people do not find the symptoms, but may also present symptoms very weight, especially if there has been organ involvement, “said Suhardjono.
He said the Global Mortality data, the death rate from hypertension to reach 7 million of the total 55.861 million deaths. In Indonesia alone, the prevalence of hypertension as a whole reached 31.7% (over 55 million), or 1 out of 3 people according to the 2007 National Riskesdas. Obtained from the survey data, especially in the population over the age of 55 years, more than 50% or 1 of 2 people suffering from hypertension.
Hypertension is not adequately treated, can lead to many complications, namely stroke, cardiovascular disorders, retinopathy, vascular disease, and cause kidney damage and death. Decline in renal function associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular complications and death. As is known, a trip cardiovascular disease and kidney disease in hypertensive runs parallel, and can be prevented with adequate blood pressure control, because if organ damage has occurred the death rate will increase.
Such Hypertension is not only associated with increased blood pressure, but there are many other factors that must be treated and controlled simultaneously. These factors include obesity, abnormal lipid metabolism, atherogenesis, left ventricular dysfunction, impaired insulin metabolism, blood clotting disorders, changes in renal function, neurohormonal dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction.
“A patient with early-stage chronic kidney disease has the possibility of death from cardiovascular events 5-10 times compared to the final stages of kidney failure,” said Suhardjono anyway.
Therefore, according to Suhardjono, necessary precautions and specific strategies to address and prevent it. This strategy includes examination of risk factors in an individual filter normal, filter examination in individuals with risk factors and assessment of progression.
For those who have had kidney abnormalities, complications and treatment done at an advanced stage of renal replacement therapy preparations done. In general, for the prevention of kidney disease required renoprotektif strategy, which consists of lifestyle changes, tight control of blood pressure, control of genetic and nongenetic risk factors, as well as a healthy lifestyle.
Suhardjono explained, actually hypertensive blood pressure resulting from the organs, such as heart pumps and mechanisms of the kidneys remove water. Thus, tension is a measure of blood pressure also describe organ performance.
According to him, there are two types of hypertension;
1. Crisis hypertension, namely, the condition in which sudden weight thereby disrupting the target organs, including bleeding due to rupture of cerebral blood vessels and can cause heart failure.
2. Chronic hypertension, where blood pressure slowly higher, which causes the target organs such as the heart begins to thicken and swell, causing shortness of breath and heart failure, or blood vessels become narrow.